# Curriculum (K-12)

At Cedar Springs Public Schools we create a strong foundation for our youngest learners starting at our Elementary level. We focus primarily on Math, Literacy, Social Studies, and Science. Below you will find outlines of what your child will learn by the end of their current grade level.

At the Middle Level Grades (6-8), students are introduced to a wide variety of encore courses where the student is able to start exploring courses of interest specifically designed for them. These courses continue to expand into High School grade levels, along with additional learning opportunities including Kent County Tech Center, Early Middle College, and Dual Enrollment learn more on the Cedar Springs High School Website.

This curriculum is based on the new Common Core State Standards, which have been adopted by more than 45 states. Click on the current grade level of your child to learn more about what your child will be learning.

The information below is provided by the National Parent Teacher Association.

To access full "*Parents’ Guides to Student Success" *in Literature and Mathematics visit the National PTA website. These guides are developed by teachers, parents, and education experts in response to the Common Core State Standards that more than 45 states have adopted.

Created for grades K-8 and high school English, language arts/literacy, and mathematics, the guides provide clear, consistent expectations for what students should be learning at each grade in order to be prepared for college and career.

## Cedar Springs Public Schools Curriculum K-12

## K

## Literacy

- Naming upper-and lower-case letters, matching those letters with their sounds, and printing them
- Comparing the adventures and experiences of characters in familiar stories, such as fairy tales and folktales
- Retelling familiar stories and talking about stories read to them using details from the text
- Using a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to describe an event, including his or her reaction to what happened
- Stating an opinion or preference about a topic or book in writing (e.g., My favorite book is . . .”)
- Taking part in classroom conversations and following rules for discussions (e.g., learning to listen to others and taking turns when speaking)
- Speaking clearly to express thoughts, feelings, and ideas, including descriptions of familiar people, places, things, and events
- Asking and answering questions about key details in stories or other information read aloud
- Understanding and using question words (e.g., who, what, where, when, why, how) in discussions
- Learning to recognize, spell, and properly use those little grammatical words that hold the language together (e.g., a, the, to, of, from, I, is, are)

## Mathematics

- Counting objects to tell how many there are
- Comparing two groups of objects to tell which group, if either, has more; comparing two written numbers to tell which is greater
- Acting out addition and subtraction word problems and drawing diagrams to represent them
- Adding with a sum of 10 or less; subtracting from a number 10 or less, and solving addition and subtraction word problems
- Adding and subtracting very small numbers quickly and accurately (e.g., 3 + 1)
- Correctly naming shapes regardless of orientation or size (e.g., a square oriented as a “diamond” is still a square)

## Science

Michigan’s science standards are organized by grade level K-5, and then by grade span in middle school and high school.

The K-5 grade level organization reflects the developmental nature of learning for elementary students in a manner that attends to the important learning progressions toward basic foundational understandings. By the time students reach traditional middle school grades (6-8), they can begin to build on this foundation to develop more sophisticated understandings of science concepts within and across disciplines.

This structure also allows schools to design local courses and pathways that make sense for their students and available instructional resources.

Download and read more about the Michigan K-12 Standards Science from the Michigan Department of Education.

## Social Studies

The purpose of social studies is to promote the knowledge, skills, intellectual processes, and dispositions required of people to be actively engaged in fulfilling their responsibility of civic participation.

As members of a culturally diverse, democratic society in an interdependent world, young people need to learn how to make informed and reasoned decisions for the public good. Social studies foster a renewed and reinvigorated commitment to the ideal, “government of the people, by the people, and for the people,” as expressed by President Lincoln in his Gettysburg Address.

The expectations are outlined in the Michigan K-12 Standards Social Studies provided by the Michigan Department of Education.

## Grade 1

## Literacy

- Using phonics (matching letters and sounds) and word analysis skills to figure out unfamiliar words when reading and writing
- Getting facts and information from different writings
- Writing about a topic, supplying some facts, and providing some sense of opening and closing
- Taking part in conversations about topics and texts being studied by responding to the comments of others and asking questions to clear up any confusion
- Producing and expanding complete simple and compound statements, questions, commands, and exclamations
- Identifying the correct meaning for a word with multiple meanings, based on the sentence or paragraph in which the word is used (e.g., deciding whether the word bat means a flying mammal or a club used in baseball)
- Learning to think about finer distinctions in the meanings of near-synonyms (e.g., marching, prancing, strutting, strolling, walking)

## Mathematics

- Solving addition and subtraction word problems in situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing (e.g., a taking from situation would be: “Five apples were on the table. I ate some apples. Then there were three apples. How many apples did I eat?”)
- Quickly and accurately adding with a sum of 10 or less, and quickly and accurately subtracting from a number 10 or less (e.g., 2 + 5, 7 – 5)
- Understanding what the digits mean in two-digit numbers (place value)
- Using understanding of place value to add and subtract (e.g., 38 + 5, 29 + 20, 64 + 27, 80 – 50)
- Measuring lengths of objects by using a shorter object as a unit of length
- Making composite shapes by joining shapes together, and dividing circles and rectangles into halves or fourths

## Science

Michigan’s science standards are organized by grade level K-5, and then by grade span in middle school and high school.

The K-5 grade level organization reflects the developmental nature of learning for elementary students in a manner that attends to the important learning progressions toward basic foundational understandings. By the time students reach traditional middle school grades (6-8), they can begin to build on this foundation to develop more sophisticated understandings of science concepts within and across disciplines.

This structure also allows schools to design local courses and pathways that make sense for their students and available instructional resources.

Download and read more about the Michigan K-12 Standards Science from the Michigan Department of Education.

## Social Studies

The purpose of social studies is to promote the knowledge, skills, intellectual processes, and dispositions required of people to be actively engaged in fulfilling their responsibility of civic participation.

As members of a culturally diverse, democratic society in an interdependent world, young people need to learn how to make informed and reasoned decisions for the public good. Social studies foster a renewed and reinvigorated commitment to the ideal, “government of the people, by the people, and for the people,” as expressed by President Lincoln in his Gettysburg Address.

The expectations are outlined in the Michigan K-12 Standards Social Studies provided by the Michigan Department of Education.

## Grade 2

## Literacy

- Paying close attention to details, including illustrations and graphics, in stories and books to answer who, what, where, when, why, and how questions
- Determining the lesson or moral of stories, fables, and folktales
- Using text features (e.g., captions, bold print, indexes) to locate key facts or information efficiently
- Writing an opinion about a book he or she has read, using important details from the materials to support that opinion
- Writing stories that include a short sequence of events and include a clear beginning, middle, and end
- Taking part in conversations by linking his or her comments to the remarks of others and asking and answering questions to gather additional information or deepen understanding of the topic
- Retelling key information or ideas from media or books read aloud
- Producing, expanding, and rearranging sentences (e.g., “The boy watched the movie”; “The little boy watched the movie”; “The action movie was watched by the little boy”)
- Determining the meaning of the new word formed when a known prefix or suffix is added to a known word (happy/unhappy; pain/painful/painless)

## Mathematics

- Solving challenging addition and subtraction word problems with one or two steps (e.g., a “one-step” problem would be: “Lucy has 23 fewer apples than Julie. Julie has 47 apples. How many apples does Lucy have?”)
- Quickly and accurately adding with a sum of 20 or less (e.g., 11 + 8); quickly and accurately subtracting from a number 20 or less (e.g., 16 – 9); and knowing all sums of one-digit numbers from memory by the end of the year
- Understanding what the digits mean in three-digit numbers (place value)
- Using understanding of place value to add and subtract three-digit numbers (e.g., 811 – 367); adding and subtracting two-digit numbers quickly and accurately (e.g., 77 – 28)
- Solving addition and subtraction word problems involving length (e.g., “The pen is 2 cm longer than the pencil. If the pencil is 7 cm long, how long is the pen?”)
- Building, drawing and analyzing 2-D and 3-D shapes to develop foundations for area, volume, and geometry in later grade

## Science

Michigan’s science standards are organized by grade level K-5, and then by grade span in middle school and high school.

The K-5 grade level organization reflects the developmental nature of learning for elementary students in a manner that attends to the important learning progressions toward basic foundational understandings. By the time students reach traditional middle school grades (6-8), they can begin to build on this foundation to develop more sophisticated understandings of science concepts within and across disciplines.

This structure also allows schools to design local courses and pathways that make sense for their students and available instructional resources.

Download and read more about the Michigan K-12 Standards Science from the Michigan Department of Education.

## Social Studies

The purpose of social studies is to promote the knowledge, skills, intellectual processes, and dispositions required of people to be actively engaged in fulfilling their responsibility of civic participation.

As members of a culturally diverse, democratic society in an interdependent world, young people need to learn how to make informed and reasoned decisions for the public good. Social studies foster a renewed and reinvigorated commitment to the ideal, “government of the people, by the people, and for the people,” as expressed by President Lincoln in his Gettysburg Address.

The expectations are outlined in the Michigan K-12 Standards Social Studies provided by the Michigan Department of Education.

## Grade 3

## Literacy

- Reading closely to find main ideas and supporting details in a story
- Describing the logical connection between particular sentences and paragraphs in stories (e.g., first, second, third; cause and effect)
- Comparing the most important points and key details presented in two books on the same topic
- Writing opinions or explanations that group related information and develop topics with facts and details
- Writing stories that establish a situation and include details and clear sequences of events that describe the actions, thoughts, and feelings of characters
- Independently conducting short research projects that build knowledge about various topics
- Asking and answering questions about information he or she hears from a speaker or while participating in classroom discussions, offering appropriate elaboration and detail that build on what others have said
- Reading stories and poems aloud fluently, without pausing to figure out what each word means
- Distinguishing the literal and nonliteral meanings of words, such as something’s fishy and cold shoulder
- Spelling correctly and consulting dictionaries to clarify meanings of words

## Mathematics

Multiplying and dividing up to 10 × 10 quickly and accurately, including knowing the times tables from memory Solving word problems using addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division Beginning to multiply numbers with more than one digit (e.g., multiplying 9 × 80) Understanding fractions and relating them to the familiar system of whole numbers (e.g., recognizing that 3⁄1 and 3 are the same number) Measuring and estimating weights and liquid volumes, and solving word problems involving these quantities Reasoning about shapes (e.g., all squares are rectangles but not all rectangles are squares) Finding areas of shapes, and relating area to multiplication (e.g., why is the number of square feet for a 9-foot by 7-foot room given by the product 9 × 7?)

## Science

The K-5 grade level organization reflects the developmental nature of learning for elementary students in a manner that attends to the important learning progressions toward basic foundational understandings. By the time students reach traditional middle school grades (6-8), they can begin to build on this foundation to develop more sophisticated understandings of science concepts within and across disciplines.

This structure also allows schools to design local courses and pathways that make sense for their students and available instructional resources.

Download and read more about the Michigan K-12 Standards Science from the Michigan Department of Education.

## Social Studies

As members of a culturally diverse, democratic society in an interdependent world, young people need to learn how to make informed and reasoned decisions for the public good. Social studies foster a renewed and reinvigorated commitment to the ideal, “government of the people, by the people, and for the people,” as expressed by President Lincoln in his Gettysburg Address.

The expectations are outlined in the Michigan K-12 Standards Social Studies provided by the Michigan Department of Education.

## Grade 4

## Literacy

- Describing the basic elements of stories — such as characters, events, and settings — by drawing on specific details in the text
- Paying close attention to key features of informational books and articles: these include understanding the main and supporting ideas; being able to compare and contrast information; and explaining how the author uses facts, details, and evidence to support particular points
- Comparing ideas, characters, events, and settings in stories and myths from different cultures
- Writing summaries or opinions about topics supported with a set of well-organized facts, details, and examples
- Independently conducting short research projects on different aspects of a topic using evidence from books and the Internet
- Paraphrasing and responding to information presented in discussions, such as comparing and contrasting ideas and analyzing evidence that speakers use to support particular points
- Reporting orally on a topic or telling a story with enough facts and details
- Writing complete sentences with correct capitalization and spelling
- Relating words that are common in reading to words with similar meanings (synonyms) and to their opposites (antonyms)

## Mathematics

- Using whole-number arithmetic to solve word problems, including problems with remainders and problems with measurements
- Adding and subtracting whole numbers quickly and accurately (numbers up to 1 million)
- Multiplying and dividing multi-digit numbers in simple cases (e.g., multiplying 1,638 × 7 or 24 × 17, and dividing 6,966 by 6)
- Understanding and applying equivalent fractions (e.g., recognizing that 1⁄4 is less than 3⁄8 because 2⁄8 is less than 3⁄8)
- Adding, subtracting, and multiplying fractions in simple cases (such as 2 3⁄4 − 1 1⁄4 or 3 × 5⁄8), and solving related word problems
- Understanding simple decimals in terms of fractions (e.g., rewriting 0.62 as 62⁄100)
- Measuring angles and finding unknown angles in a diagram

## Science

The K-5 grade level organization reflects the developmental nature of learning for elementary students in a manner that attends to the important learning progressions toward basic foundational understandings. By the time students reach traditional middle school grades (6-8), they can begin to build on this foundation to develop more sophisticated understandings of science concepts within and across disciplines.

This structure also allows schools to design local courses and pathways that make sense for their students and available instructional resources.

Download and read more about the Michigan K-12 Standards Science from the Michigan Department of Education.

## Social Studies

As members of a culturally diverse, democratic society in an interdependent world, young people need to learn how to make informed and reasoned decisions for the public good. Social studies foster a renewed and reinvigorated commitment to the ideal, “government of the people, by the people, and for the people,” as expressed by President Lincoln in his Gettysburg Address.

The expectations are outlined in the Michigan K-12 Standards Social Studies provided by the Michigan Department of Education.

## Grade 5

## Literacy

- Summarizing the key details of stories, dramas, poems, and nonfiction materials, including their themes or main ideas
- Identifying and judging evidence that supports particular ideas in an author’s argument to change a reader’s point of view
- Integrating information from several print and digital sources to answer questions and solve problems
- Writing opinions that offer reasoned arguments and provide facts and examples that are logically grouped to support the writer’s point of view
- Writing stories, real or imaginary, that unfold naturally and developing the plot with dialogue, description, and effective pacing of the action
- Coming to classroom discussions prepared, then engaging fully and thoughtfully with others (e.g., contributing accurate, relevant information; elaborating on the remarks of others; synthesizing ideas)
- Reporting on a topic or presenting an opinion with his or her own words, a logical sequence of ideas, sufficient facts and details, and formal English when appropriate
- Expanding, combining, and reducing sentences to improve meaning, interest, and style of writing
- Building knowledge of academic words with an emphasis on those that signal a contrast in ideas or logical relationships, such as on the other hand, similarly, and therefore
- Producing writing on the computer

## Mathematics

- Adding and subtracting fractions with unlike denominators (e.g., 21⁄4 – 11⁄3), and solving word problems of this kind
- Multiplying fractions; dividing fractions in simple cases; and solving related word problems (e.g., finding the area of a rectangle with fractional side lengths; determining how many 1⁄3-cup servings are in 2 cups of raisins; determining the size of a share if 9 people share a 50-pound sack of rice equally or if 3 people share 1⁄2 pound of chocolate equally)
- Generalizing the place-value system to include decimals, and calculating with decimals to the hundredths place (two places after the decimal)
- Multiplying whole numbers quickly and accurately, for example, 1,638 × 753, and dividing whole numbers in simple cases, such as dividing 6,971 by 63
- Understanding the concept of volume, and solving word problems that involve volume
- Graphing points in the coordinate plane (two dimensions) to solve problems
- Analyzing mathematical patterns and relationships

## Science

The K-5 grade level organization reflects the developmental nature of learning for elementary students in a manner that attends to the important learning progressions toward basic foundational understandings. By the time students reach traditional middle school grades (6-8), they can begin to build on this foundation to develop more sophisticated understandings of science concepts within and across disciplines.

This structure also allows schools to design local courses and pathways that make sense for their students and available instructional resources.

Download and read more about the Michigan K-12 Standards Science from the Michigan Department of Education.

## Social Studies

As members of a culturally diverse, democratic society in an interdependent world, young people need to learn how to make informed and reasoned decisions for the public good. Social studies foster a renewed and reinvigorated commitment to the ideal, “government of the people, by the people, and for the people,” as expressed by President Lincoln in his Gettysburg Address.

The expectations are outlined in the Michigan K-12 Standards Social Studies provided by the Michigan Department of Education.

## Grade 6

## Literacy

- Gaining knowledge from materials that make extensive use of elaborate diagrams and data to convey information and illustrate concepts
- Evaluating the argument and specific claims in written materials or a speech, and distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not
- Presenting claims and findings to others orally, sequencing ideas logically, and accentuating main ideas or themes
- Writing brief reports that examine a topic, have a clear focus, and include relevant facts, details, and quotations
- Conducting short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources, and sharpening the focus based on the research findings
- Reviewing and paraphrasing key ideas and multiple perspectives of a speaker
- Determining the correct meaning of a word based on the context in which it is used (e.g., the rest of the sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in a sentence)

## Mathematics

- Understanding ratios and rates, and solving problems involving proportional relationships (e.g., if it took 7 hours to mow 4 lawns, then at that rate, how many lawns could be mowed in 35 hours?)
- Dividing fractions and solving related word problems (e.g., how wide is a rectangular strip of land with length 3⁄4 mile and area 1⁄2 square mile?)
- Using positive and negative numbers together to describe quantities; understanding the ordering and absolute values of positive and negative numbers
- Working with variables and expressions by generalizing the way numbers work (e.g., when adding numbers, the order doesn’t matter, so x + y = y + x; likewise, properties of addition and multiplication can be used to rewrite 24x + 18y as 6(4x + 3y), or y + y + y as 3y)
- Writing equations to solve word problems and describe relationships between quantities (e.g., the distance D traveled by a train in time T might be expressed by an equation D = 85T, where D is in miles and T is in hours)
- Reasoning about relationships between shapes to determine area, surface area, and volume

## Science

Michigan’s science standards are organized by grade level K-5, and then by grade span in middle school and high school.

Download and read more about the Michigan K-12 Standards Science from the Michigan Department of Education.

## Social Studies

The purpose of social studies is to promote the knowledge, skills, intellectual processes, and dispositions required of people to be actively engaged in fulfilling their responsibility of civic participation.

The expectations are outlined in the Michigan K-12 Standards Social Studies provided by the Michigan Department of Education.

## Encore Classes

## Grade 7

## Literacy

- Citing several sources of specific evidence from a piece when offering an oral or written analysis of a book, essay, article, or play
- Organizing and focusing his or her own writing, including supporting statements and conclusions with evidence and showing that the evidence is accurate and reliable
- Conducting research in response to a specific question by drawing on evidence from several credible literary or informational sources to support an analysis or reflection
- Avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citations (e.g., footnotes, bibliography)
- Evaluating a speaker’s key points and reasoning, asking questions, and stating his or her own well-supported ideas in discussions
- Presenting claims and findings to others emphasizing main points, making eye contact, speaking loudly enough, pronouncing words clearly, and using formal English when the situation calls for it
- Using common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to defining the meaning of a word (e.g., semi-, semiannual, semicircle)

## Mathematics

- Analyzing proportional relationships (e.g., by graphing in the coordinate plane), and distinguishing proportional relationships from other kinds of mathematical relationships (e.g., buying 10 times as many items will cost you 10 times as much, but taking 10 times as many aspirin will not lower your fever 10 times as much)
- Solving percent problems (e.g., tax, tips, and markups and markdowns)
- Solving word problems that have a combination of whole numbers, fractions, and decimals (e.g., a woman making $25 per hour receives a 10% raise; she will make an additional 1⁄10 of his or her salary an hour, or $2.50, for a new salary of $27.50)
- Solving equations such as 1⁄2 (x – 3) = 3⁄4 quickly and accurately, and writing equations of this kind to solve word problems
- Solving problems involving scale drawings
- Using statistics to draw inferences and make comparisons (e.g., deciding which candidate is likely to win an election based on a survey)

## Science

Michigan’s science standards are organized by grade level K-5, and then by grade span in middle school and high school.

Download and read more about the Michigan K-12 Standards Science from the Michigan Department of Education.

## Social Studies

The purpose of social studies is to promote the knowledge, skills, intellectual processes, and dispositions required of people to be actively engaged in fulfilling their responsibility of civic participation.

The expectations are outlined in the Michigan K-12 Standards Social Studies provided by the Michigan Department of Education.

## Encore Classes

## Grade 8

## Literacy

- Citing the evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what is explicitly stated and/or implied from a book, article, poem, or play
- Analyzing where materials on the same topic disagree on matters of fact, interpretation, or point of view
- Building writing around strong central ideas or points of view; supporting the ideas with sound reasoning and evidence, precise word choices, smooth transitions, and different sentence structures
- Planning and conducting research projects that include several steps and use many credible and documented print and digital sources
- Analyzing the purpose of information presented in diverse media (e.g., print, TV, web) and evaluating its social, political, or commercial motives
- Presenting findings and claims to others, emphasizing key points with relevant evidence and sound reasoning, adapting speech to the audience and the formality of the setting, and responding to questions and comments with relevant observations and ideas
- Using strong, active verbs to create a clear picture for the reader (e.g., walk, skip, meander, lurch, limp)
- Interpreting figures of speech (e.g., irony, puns) and developing a large vocabulary of general academic words and phrases

## Mathematics

- Understanding slope, and relating linear equations in two variables to lines in the coordinate plane
- Solving linear equations (e.g., –x + 5(x + 1⁄3) = 2x – 8); solving pairs of linear equations (e.g., x + 6y = –1 and 2x – 2y = 12); and writing equations to solve related word problems
- Understanding functions as rules that assign a unique output number to each input number; using linear functions to model relationships
- Analyzing statistical relationships by using a best-fit line (a straight line that models an association between two quantities)
- Working with positive and negative exponents, square root and cube root symbols, and scientific notation (e.g., evaluating Ö36 + 64; estimating world population as 7 x 109 )
- Understanding congruence and similarity using physical models, transparencies, or geometry software (e.g., given two congruent figures, show how to obtain one from the other by a sequence of rotations, translations, and/or reflections)

## Science

Michigan’s science standards are organized by grade level K-5, and then by grade span in middle school and high school.

Download and read more about the Michigan K-12 Standards Science from the Michigan Department of Education.

## Social Studies

The purpose of social studies is to promote the knowledge, skills, intellectual processes, and dispositions required of people to be actively engaged in fulfilling their responsibility of civic participation.

The expectations are outlined in the Michigan K-12 Standards Social Studies provided by the Michigan Department of Education.

## Encore Classes

## High School (Grade 9-12)

## High School Curriculum Guide

The state of Michigan requires a minimum of 18 credits to graduate from high school, under what is known as the Michigan Merit Curriculum. These credits include English language arts, math, science, social studies, physical education, arts, and foreign languages.

View the Cedar Springs High School Curriculum Guide to see all the courses available and plan your 4-year education with our district.

## Literacy

**Reading**

- Understanding more from and making fuller use of written materials, including using a wider range of evidence to support an analysis
- Making more connections about how complex ideas interact and develop within a book, essay, or article
- Evaluating arguments and specific claims, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is sufficient, and as appropriate, detecting inconsistencies and ambiguities
- Analyzing the meaning of foundational U.S. documents (the Declaration of Independence, the Preamble to the Constitution, the Bill of Rights)

**Writing**

- Making an argument that is logical, well-reasoned, and supported by evidence
- Writing a literary analysis, report, or summary that develops a central idea and a coherent focus and is well supported with relevant examples, facts, and details
- Conducting several research projects that address different aspects of the same topic, using more complex books, articles, and other sources

**Speaking and Listening**

- Responding thoughtfully to diverse perspectives; synthesizing comments, claims, and evidence made on all sides of an issue; and resolving contradictions when possible
- Sharing research, findings, and evidence clearly and concisely
- Making strategic use of digital media (e.g., animations, video, websites, podcasts) to enhance understanding of findings and to add interest

**Language**

Determining or clarifying the meaning of words and phrases, choosing flexibly from multiple strategies, such as using context, Greek and Latin roots (e.g., bene as in benefactor or benevolent), patterns of words (conceive, conception, conceivable), and consulting specialized reference materials. Interpreting figures of speech (e.g., hyperbole, paradox) in context and analyzing their role in the written materials

## Mathematics

**Number and Quantity**

- Working with rational and irrational numbers, including working with rational exponents (e.g., rewriting (53 ) 1/2 as 5√5)
- Solving problems with a wide range of units and solving problems by thinking about units (e.g., “The Trans Alaska Pipeline System is 800 miles long and cost $8 billion to build. Divide one of these numbers by the other. What is the meaning of the answer?”; “Greenland has a population of 56,700 and a land area of 2,175,600 square kilometers. By what factor is the population density of the United States, 80 persons per square mile, larger than the population density of Greenland?”)

**Algebra**

- Solving real-world and mathematical problems by writing and solving nonlinear equations, such as quadratic equations (ax2 + bx + c = 0)
- Interpreting algebraic expressions and transforming them purposefully to solve problems (e.g., in solving a problem about a loan with interest rate r and principal P, seeing the expression P(1+r) n as a product of P with a factor not depending on P)

**Functions**

- Analyzing functions algebraically and graphically, and working with functions presented in different forms (e.g., given a graph of one quadratic function and an algebraic expression for another, say which has the larger maximum)
- Working with function families and understanding their behavior (such as linear, quadratic, and exponential functions) Modeling
- Analyzing real-world situations using mathematics to understand the situation better and optimize, troubleshoot, or make an informed decision (e.g., estimating water and food needs in a disaster area, or using volume formulas and graphs to find an optimal size for an industrial package)

**Geometry**

- Proving theorems about triangles and other figures (e.g., that the angles in a triangle add to 180o )
- Using coordinates and equations to describe geometric properties algebraically (e.g., writing the equation for a circle in the plane with specified center and radius)

**Statistics and Probability**

- Making inferences and justifying conclusions from sample surveys, experiments, and observational studies
- Working with probability and using ideas from probability in everyday situations (e.g., comparing the chance that a person who smokes will develop lung cancer to the chance that a person who develops lung cancer smokes)

## Science

Download and read more about the Michigan K-12 Standards Science from the Michigan Department of Education.

## Social Studies

The expectations are outlined in the Michigan K-12 Standards Social Studies provided by the Michigan Department of Education.

## MySchool@Kent

Cedar Springs Public Schools has a partnership with MySchool@Kent.

If your student is interested in pursuing a hybrid education they should contact their principal for more information.